Strategy of contrasting Holmes with Watson leads to lengthy passages where one is asked to consider why Dr Watson is such an unthinking oaf, and why Sherlock Holmes is, well, whatever is currently being considered to be great. These distinctions are not always logical.

There is good science writing in here, but also clunking errors (the cocktail party effect is not “noting our name in the din of a room” but describes the more complex processes whereby we can both attend to one person’s voice among many, yet also process the ignored voices to some degree, such that we notice our name being mentioned).

Human intellect, by and large, is independent and, therefore, decentralized;

Intelligence is the strategic use of relatively small-world information, with variety and velocity, on specific subjects, as opposed to “whole of internet” to start with, that are:

Combinatorial (Combinatorial information would aggregate information over many variables, by allowing bets on all variable value combinations. Reminds Seinfeld episodes) – “Do you want to know about A? …But I was talking about B”;

Asymmetric (or imperfect) – “I don’t know, what you know and you don’t know, what I know”; and

Incomplete information – “I can’t recall” and “I don’t know, never heard”;

A self-organized learning method, in accordance with the dynamic proactive-retroactive learning method is executed to segment a graph network data based on bounded diffusion of collective individual information interactions. The nearest-neighbor or group data is determined from grouping of individual transactional data for a group where individual is a member. After a certain upper-bound number of groups, the system applies a diffusion-limited aggregation (“DLA”) – a formation process whereby individuals in a group, as particles, and their signals – defined as change or the first derivative in an individual’s data – of a subject matter undergo a stochastic process for clustering together to different aggregates (“clusters”) of such individuals. These signals and their changes – defined as the second derivative in an individual’s data – are used for predicting the group’s current state, as described above, and applied sheafing method, (or group theory) for “grouping” mechanism – depending on the geometry of the growth, for example, whether it be from a single point radially outward or from a plane or line – of clusters where the individual is a member, to determine the state.

The bounded diffusion in DLA, for example, may have one additional parameter, the position of the decision bound, say A. If at time t of the state data of the individual (or subject matter e.g., search for an item) is x, the distribution of the state at a future time may be s > t, hence the term “forward” diffusion. The backward diffusion, on the other hand, may be useful when the individual at a future time s has a particular behavior due to past decision, the distribution at time is t < s. This may impose a terminal condition, which is integrated backward in time, from s to t (hence the term “backward” is associated with this).

While Conan Doyle’s works offer a seductive means of presenting current research on cognitive expertise, the use that can be made of literary citations is rather varied. The aim of this framework is twofold: to offer some thoughts on the different ways in which knowledge representations – experts’ knowledge organisation in memory, other aspects of experts’ cognitive functioning in general, and of Holmes in particular, that have been so far less investigated – can be used, and to illustrate the extent to which the study of Sherlock Holmes can help us make progress in the understanding of experts’ cognitive mechanisms. As Holmes said:

But love is an emotional thing, and whatever is emotional is opposed to that true cold reason which I place above all things. I should never marry myself, lest I bias my judgment.’

The Sign of Four (1890)